The commercial cultivation of mandarin oranges in the United States has developed mostly in Alabama, Florida and Mississippi and, to a lesser extent, in Texas, Georgia and California. [19], The Tanaka classification system divided domestic mandarins and similar fruit into numerous species, giving distinct names to cultivars such as willowleaf mandarins (C. deliciosa), satsumas (C. unshiu), tangerines (C. tangerina). ex Tanaka)–introduced into Florida from Jamaica before 1888; oblate, small; peel dark orange-red; pulp of good quality but seedy. [9], Mandarin orange fruits are small 40–80 millimetres (1.6–3.1 in). Reasoner, in 1888. Dancy at Buena Vista, Florida, and brought into cultivation in 1871 or 1872. The 'Owari' Satsuma arrived from Japan, first in 1876 and next in 1878, and nearly a million budded trees from 1908 to 1911 for planting in the Gulf States. Mandarin is a group name for a class of oranges with thin, loose peel, which have been dubbed "kid-glove" oranges. [19], The Nanling Mountains are also home to northern and southern genetic clusters of domestic mandarins that have similar levels of sugars in the fruit compared to their wild relatives, but appreciably (in some almost 90-fold) lower levels of citric acid. Grown mainly as an ornamental and for breeding. Essential oil from the fresh peel may be used as a flavouring for candy, in gelatins, ice cream, chewing gum, and baked goods. Midseason. In Canada and the United States, they are commonly purchased in 5- or 10-pound boxes,[2] individually wrapped in soft green paper, and given in Christmas stockings. Thinning enhances fruit size and market value. The fruits are tender and readily damaged by cold. Very early in season. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly. Tree is vigorous, thornless, with large leaves, the petiole narrowly winged. Mandarin orange fruits are sweet to taste, and can be eaten as whole or squeezed to make juice. The 1971-72 crop was 170,000 MT, of which, 8,600 MT were exported to the United States and lesser amounts to East Germany, Canada and Argentina. Tree small, almost thornless, large-leaved, with faint or no wings on petioles; cultivated commercially in northern Florida, Alabama and other Gulf States; very little in California. Departmental, 20. Tree not as cold-hardy as 'Dancy', small, upright; can be maintained as a "dwarf' and in China, where the fruit is greatly prized, may be planted 900 to the acre (2,224/ha). [16], Historically, the Christmas fruit sold in North America was mostly Dancys, but now it is more often a hybrid. Sunburst Tangerines; Classification and Standards, 20-13. Tango is a proprietary seedless mid-late season irradiated selection of Murcott developed by the University of California Citrus Breeding Program. The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier, Morocco, described as a mandarin variety. [20][4] Another group of mandarins, including some tangerines, Satsuma and King mandarins, show a greater pomelo contribution and derive from the limited-pomelo hybrids being crossed again, with sweet orange or pomelo, and likewise backcrossing in some cases, producing cultivars with moderate to high levels of pomelo introgression. They are characterized by their good organoleptic qualities, but Control can be achieved by spring and summer or spring and fall spraying of an appropriate pesticide. [2] The skin is thin and peels off easily. Wild mandarins are still found there, including Daoxian mandarines (sometimes given the species name Citrus daoxianensis) as well as some members of the group traditionally called 'Mangshan wild mandarins', a generic grouping for the wild mandarin-like fruit of the Mangshan area that includes both true mandarins and the genetically-distinct and only distantly-related Mangshanyegan. [1][6] The tree trunk and major branches have thorns. They were adopted into cultivation in the Mediterranean area and, by 1850, were well established in Italy. For many, the arrival of Japanese mandarin oranges signaled the real beginning of the holiday season. 'Le-dar'–arose from a climbing branch discovered on an 'Ellendale Beauty' mandarin tree in Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, about 1959. It is highly cold-resistant; has survived 12º F (-11.11º C); is more resistant than the sweet orange to canker, gummosis, psorosis and melanose. 'Willow-leaf'–(China Mandarin')–oblate to rounded, of medium size, 2-2 1/2 in (5-6.25 cm) wide, 1 3/4-2 1/4 in (4.5-5.7 cm) high; peel orange, smooth, glossy, thin; pulp orange, with 10-12 segments; very juicy, of sweet, rich flavor; 15-20 seeds. Market Classification, Maturity Standards And Processing Or Packing Restrictions For Hybrids, D20. Medium to late in season. The word “Mandarin” originated from the portuguese word “Mandarim”, which means “Chinese Officials / Court Officials / Government People”. The Satsuma orange is believed to have originated in Japan about 350 years ago as a seedling of a cultivar, perhaps the variable 'Zairi'. [1] Their easiness to peel is an important advantage of mandarin oranges over other citrus fruits. - Mandarin tree "Comunes" Within this group, all the mandarins trees of Mediterranean origin are included, and they are practically found in fields of familiar running. The essential oil expressed from the peel is employed commercially in flavoring hard candy, gelatins, ice cream, chewing gum, and bakery goods. Mexico has overproduced tangerines, resulting in low market value and cessation of plantings. It is essentially a tangerine, has 10 to 20 seeds. It can be used as a spice for cooking, baking, drinks, or candy. Segments are peeled using a chemical process. Oblate to pear-shaped; of medium size, 2 1/4-3 in (5.7-7.5 cm) wide, 1 1/2-2 1/8 in (4-5.4 cm) high; peel deep orange-red to red, smooth, glossy at first but lumpy and fluted later, thin, leathery, tough; pulp dark-orange with 10-14 segments, of fine quality, richly flavored; 6-20 small seeds. Department of Citrus, Florida Administrative Code", "Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pomelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication", "Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes", "Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mandarin_orange&oldid=986353600, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mangshan wild mandarins (only some, others being the genetically-distinct mangshanyegan), Owari, a well-known Satsuma cultivar that ripens during the late autumn. Mandarin oranges are much more cold-hardy than the sweet orange, and the tree is more tolerant of drought. Petitgrain mandarin oil, distilled from the leaves, twigs and unripe fruits, has the same food applications. This is the leading tangerine in the United States, mainly grown in Florida, secondarily in California, and, to a small extent, in Arizona. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. 'Sunburst'–This cultivar was selected in 1967 from 15 seedlings; of hybrids of 'Robinson' and 'Osceola', the latter being another 'Clementine' pollinated with 'Orlando' tangelo but still dominantly a tangerine.

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